You can create a VPC that spans multiple Availability Zones. After creating a VPC, you can add one or more subnets in each Availability Zone. Each subnet must reside exclusively within one Availability Zone and cannot span zones. AWS assigns a unique ID to each subnet.
If a subnet's traffic is routed to an Internet gateway, the subnet is known as a Public subnet. If the instance in a Public subnet needs to communicate with the Internet, it must have a public IP address or an Elastic IP address. If a subnet doesn't have a direct route to the Internet gateway, the subnet is known as a Private subnet.
When you create a subnet, you specify the CIDR block for the subnet. The CIDR block of a subnet can be the same as the CIDR block for the VPC (for a single subnet in the VPC), or a subset (to enable multiple subnets). The allowed block size is between a /28 netmask and /16 netmask. You can create more than one subnet in a VPC, but the CIDR blocks of the subnets must not overlap.
Rackspace Subnet Recommendations¶
For most deployments, Rackspace recommends having two tiers of Subnets: Public and Private.
- EC2 instances in Public Subnets have public IP addresses associated with them and have a direct route to an AWS Internet Gateway (IGW), thus having the capability (if required) to access or be accessed by the Internet.
- EC2 instances in Private Subnets only have private IP addresses and cannot be accessed by the Internet. These EC2 instances have the capability to access the Internet via a NAT Gateway in the Public subnets (further info in the NAT section).
Assuming a typical two AZ deployment, four subnets would be required (two for Public and two for Private).
In situations where a third AZ is required (e.g. MongoDB servers in the Private subnets) then six subnets would be required (three for Public and three for Private).
It is important to note that within each tier, all the subnets will have the same network mask to simplify the operational processes (e.g. /22 for all Public subnets and /21 for all Private subnets).
Unlike traditional networking segmentation approaches that requires separate subnets (VLANs) for web, batch, application, and data tiers, AWS's use of Security Groups allows you to leverage just the Public and Private subnets, applying specific Security Groups to each tier (further info in the Security section). Thus a deployment would looks like:
- Public Subnets
- Bastion servers
- NAT servers (if not using a NAT Gateway)
- VPN servers (if not using a Virtual Private Gateway)
- Web servers not behind any ELB
- Private Subnets
- Web servers behind an ELB
- Batch-tier instances
- App-tier instance
- Data-tier instances
The CloudFormation template uses the built-in "GetAZs" function to map the first or second AZ to the specified subnet in a particular region (e.g. us-west-1a and us-west-1b). The CloudFormation template also captures the CIDR range for the subnet in the parameters:
- SubnetPublicAZ1 - CIDR for Public subnet
- SubnetPublicAZ2 - CIDR for Public subnet
- SubnetPrivateAZ1 - CIDR for Private subnet
- SubnetPrivateAZ2 - CIDR for Private subnet
- SubnetProtectedAZ1 - CIDR for Protected subnet
- SubnetProtectedAZ2 - CIDR for Protected subnet
It is recommend that you choose the CIDRs carefully to map with the applications' requirements; however, most AWS customers typically allocate roughly double the IP addresses for private subnets than public subnets. The default CIDRs in the BaseNetwork CloudFormation template are detailed in the CloudFormation section.