Posts written by lvh
In a previous post, I talked about crypto API tradeoffs. In this
post, I'll go into a specific API design case in
cryptographic library for Clojure, a language that runs on the Java Virtual
Producing cryptographic software is a difficult and specialized endeavor. One of the pitfalls is that getting it wrong looks exactly like getting it right. Much like a latent memory corruption bug or a broken distributed consensus algorithm, a piece of cryptographic software can appear to be functioning perfectly, while being subtly broken in a way that only comes to light years later. As the adage goes, attacks never get worse; they only get better. Implementation concerns like timing attacks can be fiendishly complicated to solve, involving problems like division instructions on modern Intel CPUs taking a variable number of cycles depending on the size of the input. Implementation concerns aren't the only problem; just designing the APIs themselves is a complex task as well.
Like all API design, cryptographic API design is a user experience exercise. It doesn't matter how strong or fast your cryptographic software is if no one uses it. The people who end up with ECB mode didn't end up with it because they understood what that meant. They got stuck with it because it was the default and it didn't require thinking about scary parameters like IVs, nonces, salts and tweaks. Even if someone ended up with CTR or CBC, these APIs are still precarious; they'll still be vulnerable to issues like nonce reuse, fixed IV, key-as-IV, unauthenticated encryption...
User experience design always means deep consideration of who your users are. A particular API might be necessary for a cryptographic engineer to build new protocols, but that API is probably not a reasonable default encryption API. An explicit-nonce encryption scheme is great for a record layer protocol between two peers like TLS, but it's awful for someone trying to encrypt a session cookie. We can't keep complaining about people getting it wrong when we keep giving them no chances at getting it right. This is why I'm building educational material like Crypto 101 and why I care about cryptography like nonce-misuse resistance that's easier to use correctly. (The blog post on my new nonce-misuse resistant schemes for libsodium is coming soon, I promise!)
Before you can make your API easy to use, first you have to worry about getting it to work at all.
An underlying cryptographic library might expose an unfortunate API. It might
be unwieldy because of historical reasons, backwards compatibility, language
limitations, or even simple oversight. Regardless of why the API is the way it
is, even minute changes to it—a nicer type, an implied parameter—might have
subtle but catastrophic consequences for the security of the final
product. Figuring out if an arbitrary-length integer in your programming
language is interchangeable with other representations, like the
implementation in your crypto library or a
char *, has many complex
facets. It doesn't just have to be true under some conditions; ideally, it's
true for every platform your users will run your software on, in perpetuity.
There might be an easy workaround to an annoying API. C APIs often take a
char * together with a length parameter, because C doesn't have a standard
way of passing a byte sequence together with its length. Most higher level
languages, including Java and Python, have byte sequence types that know their
own length. Therefore, you can specify the
char * and its associated length
in a single parameter on the high-level side. That's just the moral equivalent
of building a small C struct that holds both. (Whether or not you can trust C
compilers to get anything right at all is a point of contention.)
These problems compound when you are binding libraries in languages and environments with wildly different semantics. For example, your runtime might have a relocating garbage collector. Pointers in C and objects in CPython stay put, but objects move around all the time in environments like the JVM (HotSpot) or PyPy. That implies copying to or from a buffer whenever you call C code, unless the underlying virtual machine supports "memory pinning": forcing the object to stay put for the duration of the call.
Programmers normally operate in a drastically simplified model of the world. We praise programming designs for their ability to separate concerns, so that programmers can deal with one problem at a time. The modern CPU your code runs on is always an intricate beast, but you don't worry about cache lines when you're writing a Python program. Only a fraction of programmers ever has to worry about them at all. Those that do typically only do so after the program already works so they can still focus on one part of the problem.
When designing cryptographic software, these simplified models we normally program in don't generally work. A cryptographic engineer often needs to worry about concerns all the way up and down the stack simultaneously: from application layer concerns, to runtime semantics like the Java Language Specification, to FFI semantics and the C ABI on all relevant platforms, to the underlying CPU, to the mathematical underpinnings themselves. The engineer has to manage all of those, often while being hamstrung by flawed designs like TLS' MAC-then-pad-then-encrypt mess.
In future blog posts, I'll go into more detail about particular cryptographic API design concerns, starting with JVM byte types. If you're interested, you should follow me on Twitter.
Footnote: I'm happy to note that cffi now also has support for memory pinning since PyPy will support it in the upcoming 5.2 release, although that means I'll no longer be able to make Paul Kehrer of PyCA fame jealous with the pinning support in caesium.
Craig Costello, Patrick Longa and Michael Naehrig, three cryptographers at Microsoft Research, recently published a paper on supersingular isogeny Diffie-Hellman. This paper garnered a lot of interest in the security community and even made it to the front page of Hacker News. Most of the discussion around it seemed to be how no one understands isogenies, even within cryptography-literate communities. This article aims to give you a high-level understanding of what this cryptosystem is and why it works.
Modern browsers have APIs called
find one or more elements matching a CSS selector. I'm assuming basic
familiarity with CSS selectors: how you select elements, classes and ids. If
you haven't used them, the Mozilla Developer Network has an excellent